Saturday, November 1, 2014

The Great Flood

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The Great Flood

This is a great subject to look into as it also debunks the theory of evolution that has circulated since 1859. 
Evidence of The Great Flood is extensive and is published all over the internet, however, this information doesn't get much attention from mainstream media. 
The following information is divided into two sections
The first section is easier for the average reader to read and get the facts, and the second section is more scientific.
Both sections are taken from different sites.(Credit at the bottom of each :D)

Praise The Lord JESUS CHRIST!!!

Genesis 7 
And the Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation.
Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female.
Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.
For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.
And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him.
And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.
And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.
Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth,
There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
13 In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark;
14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.
15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life.
16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in.
17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth.
18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters.
19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered.
20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.
21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man:
22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.
23 And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.

Is there evidence that the flood was global?

The first book of the Bible, the book of Genesis, chapters 6 to 8, tells about a great world-wide flood.  Such a major flood would surely leave much evidence.  When we look around the world we do indeed find much evidence.  Most scientists claim that the past can be understood by what is happening in the world today.  The Bible describes a world-wide flood that was so great that it cannot be understood by looking at modern floods.  I will list several examples from a study of the earth that a great catastrophe once involved the whole earth

1.  Fast moving water can erode away dirt, sand and even rock.  When the water slows down, the dirt, sand and rock are dropped.  This sediment may contain minerals that can be weathered away quickly. In the San Francisco area of California, beds of sediments hundreds of feet thick contain minerals that would have been destroyed if not buried quickly.  Such beds can be seen in many other areas world-wide.  These sediments could not have been laid down slowly over thousands of years otherwise the minerals would have been destroyed by weathering.  Such beds tell us that a great quantity of water was involved and the sediment was deposited and buried quickly. 

2.  Stones that are rolled around by waves or currents become rounded and are called wash rock (also called conglomerate).  Conglomerate rock in Alberta, CanadaConglomerate beds are common all over the world.  One bed that I have studied in Alberta, Canada contains granite boulders of football size, that have been washed several hundred miles from the Rocky Mountains, the nearest source of  this kind of rock (Figure 1).  This bed is close to 100 feet thick and extends over several hundred square miles.  Similar beds of even greater extent are present east of San Diego, California, along the Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, on the east flank of the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, in the Grand Canyon in Arizona, and along the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada only to mention a few in North America.  The northwest flanks of the Swiss Alps consist of mountains of uplifted conglomerate that have been washed off the Alps.  In the past great sheets of moving water dumped wash rock into thick layers that extend for hundreds of miles in all directions.  No similar deposits of this extent are being produced in the world today.  
3.  Many beds, such as the Redwall of the Grand Canyon, can be traced for thousands of miles (Figure 2).  Redwall from Grand CanyonThe Redwall or its equivalent extends north all the way to Canada, east to Niagara Falls in New York, and south to Mammoth Caves in Kentucky.   An equivalent is even found on the top of Mt. Everest, the world’s highest mountain.  Also evidence of such widespread water is thin bands of clay called tonsteins that appear in or between coal seams.  Some of these one or two inch laminations spread across thousands of square miles in Europe.  Such massive and far-reaching beds require continent wide, if not world-wide, flooding.  The current direction indicators in the Redwall and similar beds, show a generally East to West movement of water.  Modern rivers and seas produce currents in various directions depending on the topography of the country.  Coal is composed of buried plant material that has been subjected to heat, pressure and chemical action.  Some coal beds can be very thick.  In the United States and Canada, there are beds that are over 100 ft. thick.  Some coal seams in Europe and Australia are several hundred feet thick.  Geologists claim that coal is produced from buried marshes and peat bogs.  Since it takes several feet of peat to be compressed into one foot of coal, seams of coal several hundred feet thick would require peat bogs over a thousand feet thick.  No peat bogs of such depths are found in the modern world.  Therefore such thick coal seams require conditions in the past that are not happening in the present world.  Some coal seams in the eastern United States can be traced north and south for hundreds of miles.  Such geographical extend and such thickness, require massive water movements on a very large scale.  A world-wide flood as described in Genesis would be expected to lay down sediments over very broad geographical areas and that is what we see in the geological record.
4.  Fish fossils are common.  Often the skeletal remains are preserved, that is, the bones have not been scattered (Figure 3).  A nearly intact fossil fishExperiments with fresh dead fish have shown that dead fish in water will disintegrate and their skeletons will fall apart in less than one week.  The abundant remains of intact fossil fish skeletons indicate rapid burial sufficiently deep to prevent oxidation, bacterial decay, and breakage due to feeding by other animals.  Fish that die in modern lakes or rivers usually completely decay and seldom leave any trace of themselves.  One bed containing numerous fossil fish scales extends over several states in the Southwestern United States.  Surprisingly very few fish bones are found in the same bed.  This seems to indicate that scales sloughed off fish that were starting to decay and were swept away by water and buried well away from where the fish bones were buried.  Only broad expanses of moving water could do this.   In Brazil fish fossils are found with the skin, muscles, organs etc. all preserved.  The fish look like they had just been caught but they are petrified and hard as stone.  They are abundant and distributed over several thousand square miles.  The large plateau where these fossils are found is well above sea level and a good 500 miles from the Atlantic Ocean.  Catastrophic conditions are required to create such an extensive assemblage of animals and plants so exquisitely preserved.  
5.  Massive graveyards of thousands and even millions of fish, dinosaurs, and mammals are seen in North America, Europe, and Africa.  The same is true of plants.  Fossil sea animals from Cincinnati, OhioFrom Utah-Colorado north to Alberta-Saskatchewan, Canada, thousands of dinosaurs are found in certain beds such as the Morrison Formation.  Dinosaur National Monument in Utah has a visitor’s display where numerous dinosaurs are exposed.  Agate Fossil Beds National Monument is a good places to see numerous fossil mammals jumbled together.  Other parts of the world also illustrate fossil graveyards.  The city of Cincinnati, Ohio sits on top of a great mass of sea animals (Figure 4).  The Messel site near Frankfort, Germany, is also a most unusual collection of animals and plants.  These two sites along with others mentioned above reveal the following information:  1.  The burial of great quantities of animals together.  2.  Rapid burial and excellent preservation.  3. The presence of species now limited to different continents.  4.  The position of mammals that suggest death by drowning.  Geological processes as seen in the modern world cannot account for such unusual conditions.  A world-wide catastrophe involving water is the easiest explanation.  
6.  A factor that needs further consideration is the mixing of widely diverse animals from different geographical areas and habitats.   In Germany the Geiseltel lignite (soft coal) deposit, is a fantastic mixture of a great variety of animals and plants from insects to mammals and birds and from deciduous trees to fungi.  Yellowstone petrified logThe Santana Formation of Brazil mentioned above is a mixture of oceanic animals of various habitats.   Open ocean fish, bottom dwelling fish, fresh water fish, and sharks along with plants are all mixed together.  The petrified forests of the Yellowstone area contain trees from a number of different environments (Figure 5).  Species range from temperate (pines, redwoods, and willows) to tropical and exotic (figs, laurels, breadfruit, catsura, and cinnamon) and from semi-desert to rain forest types.  If the study of fossil pollen from the conglomerate beds that contain the Yellowstone petrified trees are included, more than 200 species have been identified.  How could such unusual mixtures be brought together and buried except by unusual catastrophic transport by water?  A final example of unexpected fossil mixtures is seen in amber (petrified pitch).  It is easy to understand how insects could be caught in sticky pitch and wind could blow pieces of leaves and even flowers into the pitch but how could sea animals such as coral be included?  Waves or strong currents from the sea must have broken up and carried bits of coral that stuck to the pitch before it became hard or petrified.
These are only a few of many examples from the study of the earth and its contained fossils that support a major world-wide flood.  We can trust the Genesis record as a true account of an event in the past that affected the whole world. 
Harold Coffin, Ph. D. Geology, paleobotany
Here ends the first part :) 
And the second part :) 
Scientific Evidence for a Worldwide Flood 

Two Vastly Different Views:
Let's not kid ourselves.  What this is all about is whether or not the Old Testament book of Genesis (along with the rest of the Old Testament, and the New Testament) is an accurate account of what happened around 4600 years ago with regard to a worldwide flood and about 6000 years ago with regard to Creation itself.  Is the Bible accurate and true or is it just a book of allegorical stories?  
Was the great majority of the world's sedimentary strata laid down by a single Worldwide Deluge in a short amount of time, or is the evolutionary scenario of slow change, acting over eons of TIME and the associated Geological Time Chart (with its millions and millions of years) a more accurate account of Earth history and how we came to be?
This is also about God's future judgment of mankind and the return of Jesus Christ to rule over the Earth that God and His Son created.  We say this because Jesus related His return to the days of Noah and the Flood.  See Luke 17:20-2719:11-27John 5:22-2312:32, and Rev. 22:12. 
Let's Look at the Evidence: 
The following are 18 Evidences of either massive flooding and erosion, extremely rapid layering of strata, or direct evidence of a Worldwide Flood.  Such evidences are found in numerous places on virtually every Continent.   
Polystrate Fossils:
One of the strongest pieces of evidence for a worldwide flood is the existence of what Rupke termed "polystrate fossils."  Such fossils are found all over the world: especially in and around coal seams.  They are often in the form of  fossil  trees that were buried upright and which often cross multiple  layers of strata such as sandstone, shale, limestone  and even coal beds. 1,2,3,4  They range in size from small rootlets to trees over 80 feet long.  Sometimes they are oblique (or at an angle to) the surrounding strata, but more often they are perpendicular with (or standing 'upright' in) it.  For example, at Joggins, Nova Scotia, polystrate tree (and root) fossils are found at various intervals throughout roughly 2,500 feet of strata.  Many of the trees are from 10-20 feet long, 5,6 and at least  one was 40 feet long. 5,6,7   
Very few of these upright fossil trees have attached roots, and only about 1 in 50 8  have both roots and rootlets attached.  Such trees, and their missing roots are discussed in detail in an article on 'Fossil Forests'.9  Likewise many, if not most, of the large, fragmented, and  broken-off  Stigmaria roots (of these trees) are also missing their rootlets In fact, that's how the word "stigmaria" (roots) got its name: i.e. because of the scar marks left behind from the broken off (and now missing) rootlets. 9  
Many of these roots and rootlets are also buried individually. 9  Thus virtually proving that neither the trees themselves, nor their rootlets were buried in the place where they grew, or "in situ," but were uprooted and re-buried where they are now found.
Similar circumstances occur elsewhere in Nova Scotia and other Canadian provinces, as well as the United States, South America, Europe, China, Russia, and Australia.  Buried tree stumps are also found on Axel Heiberg 10,11 Island in Northern Canada and wherever coal seams are found.
And although there is much data on buried trees in the geological literature, much of it is from books that are over 100 years old.  One of the first articles on this subject was by Rupke, and in it he comments that: 
“Personally, I am of the opinion that ... polystrate fossils  constitute a crucial phenomenon  both to the actuality and the mechanism of cataclysmic deposition.  Curiously  a paper on polystrate fossils appears to be a  'black swan’  in geological literature.  Antecedent to this synopsis a systematic discussion of  the relevant phenomena was never published.  However, geologists must have been informed about these fossils.  In view of this it seems unintelligible that uniformitarianism has kept its dominant position." 12  Emphasis Added

With regard to Rupke's observation, I suspect the reason why such is still the case has more to do with a pervasive bias against any and all evidence for a Creator to whom we may one day have to give account than to the ever-mounting evidence against the theory of evolution and the millions and millions of years that such a belief needs to make it seem true.
The Fossils Themselves:  
Fossils don't form on lake bottoms today,  nor are they found  forming on the bottom of the sea. 15  Instead, they normally only form when a plant or animal is buried soon after it dies.  16  Therefore, the fossils themselves are evidence of a catastrophe such as a  flood or volcanic eruption that took place in the past. Rapid Petrification of Wood
Clastic Dikes:  According to  Austin, a clastic dike is:   
"a cross cutting body of sedimentary material which has been intruded into a foreign rock mass." 17 
"These dikes...(may) penetrate horizontal sedimentary strata (or) they may occur... in igneous and metamorphic rocks.  The process of  formation of a clastic dike is analogous to wet sand oozing up between ones toes, but on a much larger scale." 17
Clastic dikes present a problem to the "mythions of years" mindset of evolution in  that  massive "older" sediments are found intruding up into overlying younger strata.  This must have occurred while the "older" sediments were still in a plastic state.  This is clearly brought out in a book on this subject by Dr. John Morris on this same subject: i.e. on the Age of the Earth.
What took these "older" sediments so long to become hard?
One would  think that a million  years would be more than enough time to turn massive sand laden sediments into sandstone,  yet we have an example of sediments which  are said to be  80 million years older than those above them, and yet they still had not become hard, but were in a wet and plastic state when an earth movement caused them to be forced up into the (supposedly much) younger sediments.Such things not only present serious problems for the evolutionary  method of  "dating", but also tell us that something is wrong with the millions of years mindset of evolutionary theory itself, and thus cause strong suspicion that we are not being told the truth by the mass media, nor the "Scientific" community of believers in evolution. 17,18,19 
Mt. St. Helens:

Three separate eruptions produced  sedimentary-type layers hundreds of feet thick.  One of these was a hurricane velocity deposit that produced thousands of thin  laminations up to 25 feet thick.  The third eruption was a lava flow,  which turned into a hot mud-flow as it  crossed the Toutle River.  This hot mud flow not only diverted  the  river, but carved a 17 mile long  series of canyons (up to 140 feet deep) in a matter of hours.  They call it the Little Grand Canyon of the Toutle River." 20,21,22  And to this very day, neither the mass media, nor any  popular  "science" publications have told the public what happened. 23  See also Mt. St. Helens: Evidence in Support of Catastrophe. 
Palouse Canyon:   
 In Eastern Washington  State there is a canyon that was eroded through solid  basalt by Lake Missoula floods in 1-2 days. This canyon is 300 to 500 feet deep. 24,25,26,27,28

An Australian Beach:    
At Greenmount Beach on the Gold Coast of Queensland, an interesting thing occurred:   
"clear laminations, or layering, in the sand--formed by the separation of  normal silica-sand grains and smaller, denser mineral sand-grains such as rutile which are dark  in color.. The layering was present along the whole sand mass exposed." 29 
"This was produced as a result of a beach restoration project (which involved) the dredging of sand from (a) sand bar (on) the Tweed River and carrying it by ship several kilometres north to the southern Gold Coast beaches, where it was pumped ashore as a water/sand slurry through a large pipe to the beach." 29  
See also Talking About Geology / Varves30

Spontaneous Sorting of Layers:Laboratory experiments have shown  that spontaneous sorting and layering occurs with a sand, mud and clay slurry.  When the mixture slows down, the sand, mud and clay will  spontaneously precipitate (or settle out) and form individual layers.  Dr. Guy Berthault has performed a number of  experimentswhich demonstrate this31,32,33  Those who want to see this can do so online at youtube and the following links Evolution: Fact or Belief?  or  Experiments in Stratification
Turbidity Currents:  
 A turbidity current is an underwater mud flow, the discovery  of  which caused somewhat of a revolution in geology.  As a result, many sedimentary  strata layers throughout  the world have been reevaluated and found to be turbidites. 34,35,36,37,38,39,40
For example, regarding turbidites and the impact they are having on modern Geology, Kurt Howard 41 said the following in his paper on this topic:   
My physical geology professor said, "Regarding uniformitarianism, you can take it  with a grain of salt."  After reviewing geology texts on the subject of turbidites, I am following the ... professor's advice. To  paraphrase his words, I am taking uniformitarianism with a grain of sand, for the philosophy of uniformitarianism states that sedimentary layers form over many millions of years, while ... recent research has shown that turbidites form within a few hours. {1}

In  1972 Burgert  identified several lower basal Tapeats units as turbidites in Grand Canyon's Cheops Bay. Dr. Ariel Roth a geologist at Loma Linda University's Geoscience Institute, suggested that 30% of all sedimentary rocks in Grand Canyon are turbidites. Some geologists suggest that 50% of the world's sedimentary rocks might be turbidites.

Modern geologists discarded the terms  flysch sediments and geosyncline because rapidly formed megathick flysch is incompatible with uniformitarianism and long ages. However, in the last few years, the number of geologists abandoning the classical uniformitarian discipline  and adopting the new catastrophism is almost a shock to ... creationists. Geologists are finally beginning to grudgingly agree with ... creationists about the nature of the stratigraphic record, which is a record of major catastrophic events and not the slow year-by-year buildup suggested by uniformitarianism. Flysch deposits might be the sedimentary results of a global  flood.  The idea of  geosynclines is  unpopular because most geologists believe in plate tectonics.   Emphasis Added
Extensive Strata and Pancake Layering:  
As we observe sedimentary strata throughout the world  we see  almost  everywhere flat-lying (or "pancake")  layered strata.  Many of these layers are so extensive that they cover several states. For example, the Tapeats Sandstone covers over half of the United States, andrawings from Dana's  Manual of Geology depict over 90 percent of the United States and Mexico, and half of Canada  under water.  We also know that the Grand Canyon was once under the ocean because of the marine fossils that have been found there.

Evolutionists believe that such layers were deposited slowly over millions and  millions of years.  Some claim that much of the strata is simply "river" deposits  or river deltas. 42,43  Creationists and a growing number of geologists see problems with such interpretations. 44,45  First because there is virtually no evidence of  erosionbetween the layers, and second, because the sheer size and extent of  the layers tells us that they could not have been formed by rivers, nor river deltas.  That's because many of the "layers" are quite thick and cover literally  thousands of square miles.
This, coupled with the presence of marine fossils that are buried in many of the layers, tells us that they were deposited by ocean currents by a flood or  floods like nothing we have seen in moderns times.
We can say for certain that it was the ocean (as opposed to a lake) because of the marine fossils that are buried in much of this strata.  For example, in the Grand Canyon area itself,  old Earth geologists  have said that the Ocean swept over the whole area on six  different occasions.  Young Earth geologists say it  was probably only once. 
A Whale of a Fossil: 
Or should we say "a fossil of a whale? It's true, but what is most interesting about it is how it was buried. In 1976, workers from the Dicalite division of Grefco inc. found the remains of a baleen whale entombed vertically in a diatomaceous earth quarry. 
"They've found fossils there before; in fact the machinery operators have learned a good deal about them and carefully annotate any they find with the name of the collector, the date, and the exact place found. Each discovery is turned over to Lawrence G. Barnes at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. The Whale, however, is one of the largest fossils ever collected  anywhere... (It) is standing on end.. and is being exposed gradually as the diatomite is mined. Only the head and a small part of the body are visible as yet.
"The modern baleen whale is 80 to 90 feet long and has a head of similar size, indicating that the fossil may be close to 80 feet long. 46,47

More Fossil Whales:
"In bogs covering glacial deposits in Michigan, skeletons of two whales were discovered ... How did they come to Michigan in the post-glacial epoch? Glaciers do not carry whales, and the ice sheet would not have brought them to the middle of a continent... Was there a sea in Michigan after the glacial epoch, only a few thousand years ago?" 48

"Bones of Whale have been found 440  feet above sea level, north of Lake Ontario; a skeleton of another whale was discovered in Vermont, more than 500 feet above sea level; and still another in the Montreal-Quebec area, about 600 feet above sea level..." 48
Marine Fossils In The Mountains:  
In Mountains all over the world one can find sea  shells and other marine fossils.  These include the Sierras,  the Swiss Alps, the  Himalayas and many more. 49,50,51,52,53  See also this see this video 54 by Dr. Walter Brown.  See also Seashell on the Mountaintop by Alan Cutler.
Frozen Mammoths: 
Frozen mammoths and Mammoth bones are found in large  numbers in  Siberia, Alaska, and Northern Europe.  Some of these were in such good preservation that Eskimos would feed their dogs  meat from them when they became exposed due to melting  ice and snow: that  is, if wolves didn't get their first.  For more details see the Book
Fissures In The Rocks:  
In caves and fissures in  England  and Whales  and all over western  Europe are found bones and bone fragments of many types of extinct and extant animal species -- including the  mammoth, hippopotamus,  rhinoceros, horse, polar bear, bison, reindeer, wolf  and cave lion.  In virtually every case, the bones are disarticulated, without teeth marks, un-weathered, and in most cases broken and splintered. 55
"In the rock on the summit of Mont de Sautenay - a flat-topped hill  near Chalonsur-Saone between Dijon and Lyons - there is a fissure filled with animal bones.  'Why should so many wolves, bears, horses, and oxen have ascended a hill isolated on all sides?'  asked Albert Gaudry, professor at the Jardin des Plantes.  According to him, the bones in this cleft are mostly broken and splintered into innumerable ... fragments and are 'evidently not those of animals devoured by beasts of prey; nor have  they been broken by man.  Nevertheless, the remains of  wolf  were ... abundant, together with those  of cave lion, bear, rhinoceros, horse, ox, and deer... Prestwich thought that the ... bones... were found in common heaps because, '... [they] ... fled [there] to escape the rising waters.'" 55,56
Erratic Boulders:  
All  over Europe and  North America are found large "erratic" "boulders" which  were transported many miles by some mysterious force -- the most likely of  which  is a massive flood  that swept over the Continents.  Concerning these Velikovsky writes:

"Some erratics are enormous.  The block  near Conway,  New Hampshire, is  90 by 40 by 38 feet and weighs about 10,000 tons, the load of a large cargo ship.  Equally large is Mohegan Rock,  which towers over the town of Montville, in Connecticut.  The great flat  erratic  in Warren County, Ohio, weighs approximately 13,500 tons and  covers three quarters of  an acre;  the Ototoks erratic, thirty  miles south  of  Calgary, Alberta, consists  of  two pieces  of  quartzite 'derived from at least 50 miles to the west,'[and weighs] over 18,000 tons." 57
Was the Flood Local or Worldwide?   
In the late 60's and early 70's:

"Two American oceanographic  vessels pulled from the bottom of  the Gulf of  Mexico several long, slender cores of sediment.  Included in them were the shells of tiny one-celled planktonic organisms called foraminifera.  While living on the surface, these organisms lock into their shells a chemical record of  the temperature and salinity of  the water.  When they reproduce, the shells are discarded and drop to the  bottom.  A cross-section  of that bottom ... carries a record  of climates that may go back more than 100 million years.  Every inch of  core may represent as much as 1000  years of  the earth's  past." 58

"The cores  were analyzed in  two separate investigations, by Cesare Emiliani  of the University of Miami, and James Kennett of the University of Rhode Island and  Nicholas Shackleton  of Cambridge University.  Both analyses indicated a dramatic change in salinityproviding compelling evidence of a vast flood of  fresh water into the Gulf of  Mexico.  Using radiocarbon, geochemist Jerry Stripp of  the University of Miami dated the flood at about 11,600  years ago." 1  To Emiliani, all  the questions and  arguments are  minor beside the single fact that a vast amount of  fresh melt water poured  into the Gulf  of  Mexico.  'We  know this,' he says, 'because the oxygen isotope ratios of  the  foraminifera shells show a  marked temporary decrease in  the salinity of  the waters  of the Gulf  of  Mexico.  It clearly shows that there  was a major period  of flooding from 12,000 to 10,000  years ago ... There was no question that there was a flood and there is no question that it was a universal  flood58  Emphasis Added
"Emiliani's  findings are corroborated by geologists Kennett  and Shackleton, who concluded  that there was a 'massive inpouring of  glacial melt water into the Gulf  of Mexico via the Mississippi  River system.  At the time of maximum inpouring of  this water, surface salinities were... reduced by about ten percent." 58
The Black Sea Evidence:
 "Science... has found evidence for a massive deluge that may ... have  inspired  Noah's tale.  About 7,500 years ago, a  flood  poured ten  cubic miles of  water a day -- 130 times more than  flows over Niagara Falls - from the Mediterranean Sea into the Black  Sea, abruptly  turning the formerly  freshwater lake into a  brackish inland sea." 59 
"In  1993,  William Ryan  and  Walter Pitman  of  Columbia University's  Lamont-Doherty Earth  Observatory dug up cores of sediment  from the bottom of  the Black sea.  The cores showed  that the sea's  outer margins had once been dry land, indicating it had been two-thirds its  present size.  Furthermore, over the entire sea bottom was a thin, uniform layer of sediment that  could only have been deposited  during a  flood.  The researchers also found that within that layer saltwater mollusks appear, all  from the Mediterranean and all dating from around  7600 years ago." 59  

Miracle or Worldwide Flood?
"Such a hypothesis would  require assumption of a highly unlikely pattern of faunal migrations, where swarms of species of Manticoceras  are followed, everywhere at the same distance and  the same time interval, by swarms of species of Cheiloceras, the two waves  preserving their separate identities on a staggered mass migration around the world ... without evolutionary changes and  without ever becoming mixed..." 60   
"It would be easy to repeat this investigation for almost every critical zone fossil or fauna throughout the geological column for hundreds,  perhaps thousands of ... cases.  The conclusions would be the same.  In the words of Jeletsky (1956) we would have  to 'invoke a miracle', if, for example, we were to assume anything but world-wide contemporaneous  deposition for each of the 55 ammonite zones of the Jurassic.  Not all of them occur everywhere, but wherever two or more are found in superposition they occur in the same order. 60  Arkell ... summarized the picture of ... Mesozoic ammonoids as follows:
'Evolution is above all very uneven.  Certain periods were outstandingly productive of  new and verile forms  which often seem to have sprung into existence  from nowhere ... and to have become dominant almost simultaneously over a large part of  the world ... How such sudden multiple creations were brought about is a task for the future to determine.'" 60, 61  
Note: Manticoceras and Cheiloceras are two different types of ammonites.
Worldwide Chaos and Out of Order Fossils: 
The following excerpts provide further evidence that something is amiss with the Geological Time Chart and the associated Theory of Evolution itself.
"I regard the failure to find a clear 'vector of progress' in life's history as the most puzzling  fact of the fossil record."  62  And that:

"Heretofore, we have thrown up our hands in frustration at  the lack  of expected pattern in life's  history --  or we have  sought to impose a pattern that we hoped to find on a world that does not really display it If  we can develop a ... theory of mass extinction, we may finally understand why life has thwarted our expectations, and ... extract an  unexpected ... pattern from apparent chaos. 62

"One of  the ironies of  the evolution-creation debate is that the creationists have accepted the mistaken notion that the fossil record shows a detailed and orderly progression..." 63

"... only 15-20%  of the earth's land surface has even 3 geologic  periods appearing in 'correct' consecutive order."  64

"Any sequence in which an older fossil occurs above a younger one is stratigraphically disordered ... disorder may be  from millimeters to many meters ... (and) is produced by  the physical or biogenic mixing of ... sediments ... Since these processes occur to an extent in virtually all sedimentary systems, stratigraphic  disorder at some scale is probably a common feature of  the fossil record." 65

"The extent of disorder is ... not well documented; however, the widespread occurrence of anomalies ... suggest that disorder should be taken seriously ..."  ref. 61  p. 234.  W. J. Arkell.

"Examination of Britain's record of  the Ice Age levels discloses a 'complex interbedding of drift sheets derived from different sources.'  'When we add the additional complications imposed by thin  drifts, scanty interglacial deposits, and the frequent presence in  fossil - bearing beds of secondary [displaced]  fossils derived from the reworking of older horizons, we get a truly difficult overall problem ... All in all, British glacial  stratigraphic research  has encountered exceptional  difficulties,' writes  R. F. Flint, professor of geology  at Yale University. 66, 67   Emphasis Added

All of this evidence should make even the most skeptic think twice :) 
May The Lord Jesus Christ bless you all! :)

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